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The information contained in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as  medical advice on any matter.The material on this website may not reflect the most current medical developments. The content and interpretation of the medical information addressed herein is subject to revision. We disclaim all liability in respect to actions taken or not taken based on any or all the contents of this site to the fullest extent permitted by law. Do not act or refrain from acting upon this information without seeking professional medical advise.

References for Content 

Following are the references for content on this website 

1. Bolumar, F., Olsen, J. et al. (1997). “Caffeine intake and delayed conception: a European multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity.” European Study Group on Infertility Subfecundity. American Journal of Epidemiology 145(4): 324-334.


2. Homan, G. F., Davies, M. et al. (2007). “The impact of lifestyle factors on reproductive performance in the general population and those undergoing infertility treatment: a review.” Human Reproduction Update 13(3): 209-223.


3. Astley S.J., Bailey D., et al..(2000). “Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) primary prevention through FAS diagnosis: A comprehensive profile of 80 birth mothers of

children with FAS.” Alcohol Alcoholism 35: 509–512.


4. Augood C., Duckitt K., et al. (1998). “Smoking and female infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” Human Reproduction 13: 1532-39.


5.NHMRC. (2009). “Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol.” Canberra, Australia: National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), 2009.


6.NHMRC. “Advising on smoking cessation in pregnancy.” (Accessed November 30, 2012).


7.Government of South Australia (2008). “Government of South Australia Department of Health. South Australian Perinatal Practice Guidelines - Chapter 1 Preconception Advice,” from


8. Mandatory folic acid and iodine fortification in Australia and New Zealand: baseline report for monitoring, 2011, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australian Government.


9. Nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand, National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Government.


10.Pregnancy, Dietitians Association of Australia .


11. Iron deficiency anaemia, MedlinePlus, National Institutes of Health US


12. South Australian Perinatal Practice Guidelines : Anaemia in pregnancy n


13. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG). Vitamin and mineral supplementation in pregnancy. RANZCOG College Statement: C-Obs 25 2013. Available from URL: statements-guidelines.html


14. Devalia V, Hamilton MS, Molloy AM, on behalf of the British Committee for Standards

in Haematology. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin and folate disorders. British Society for Haematology, London, United Kingdom. 2014 s_(2).docx.pdf


15. Bryant C, Larsen S. Anaemia in pregnancy. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Obstetrics and Gynaecology Magazine 2009; 11: 17-18


16. Bloodsafe: Patient information leaflet ‘What you should know about iron tablets’

Oral iron dosing chart for clinicians: ‘Oral preparations for treatment of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in Australia’.  Available from URL: resources/clinical+programs/blood+products+and+programs/bloodsafe/bloodsafe+informati on+for+consumers/iron+therapy


17. Imdad A, Jabeen A, Bhutta ZA. Role of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in reducing risk of developing gestational hypertensive disorders: a meta-analysis of studies from developing countries. BMC Public Health, 2011, 11(Suppl. 3):S18.


18.Guideline: Calcium Supplementation in Pregnant Women(WHO experts). Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010.




19.Iodine Supplementation for Pregnant and Breast feedIng Women:


20. National Health and Medical Research Council and New Zealand Ministry of Health (2006). Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand including Recommended Dietary Intakes. Commonwealth of Australia. Available online at


21. SALDEEN Pia, SALDEEN Tom. Women and omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 FA can facilitate pregnancy in women with infertility problems by increasing uterine blood flow Obstetrical & gynecological survey 2004, vol. 59, no10.


22 . Medicare benefits in pregnancy:


23. Vaginal Thrush [online], Melbourne Sexual Health Centre.


24. Women’s Health Victoria Homepage [online], WHV, Melbourne, Australia :


25. Morning Sickness.


26.  Morning sickness,


27. Morning Sickness .


28. SANDS Miscarriage, Stillbirth and Newborn Death Support Tel: 1300 072 637 (24hr Australia-wide).


29. Australian Centre for Grief and Bereavement,


30. Bleeding in early Preganancy.


31.The Investigation and Treatment of Couples with Recurrent First- trimester and Second-trimester Miscarriage.


32. Recurrent Miscarriage.


33. Recurrent miscarriage.


34.Medical management of Ectopic Pregnancy .


35. The diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy.


36.Tubal Pregnancy, Management (Green-top Guideline No. 21).


37. The management of tubal pregnancy .


38. National Guidelines: Ectopic pregnancy


39. Hydatidiform mole:



40.The management of Gestational Trophoblastic  Disease .


41.Gestational  Trophoblastic  Disease (Complete and partial molar pregnancy):


42.Urinary tract infections in pregnancy:


43.Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: old and new unresolved diagnostic and therapeutic problems:


44 .Managemnet  of  Urinary  Tract  Infections In Pregnancy:


45. Pregnancy related Incontinence.


46.Air travel and pregnancy:


47.Pregnancy and travel :


48 . ESHERE guidelines : management of women with endometriosis :


49. Endometriosis Australia :


50. Endometriosis :

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